A Discourse on Brutalism Architecture: The Forgotten Architecture Style in Architecture Revolution





brutalism, Malaysia, architecture theory, modernism


This paper explores the Brutalism architectural style. This style became popular in the 1950-1970s with the start of experimentation with building materials in line with the social movements of that time. This research uses an exploratory approach based on a longitudinal study of similar studies. The discussion focused on the architects' revolutionary thinking towards unique designs through form manipulation and material exploration. The results of his work show the determination of form seekers, material experimentation, and the enthusiasm of young architects for monumental architecture. Massive and unadorned reinforced concrete frames, simplicity, minimal ornamentation, small windows, and rough surfaces are usually used for government buildings, institutions, and high-rise housing. The popularity of Brutalism spread to the Far East. The formation of Brutalist architecture in Malaysia left its mark on the urban landscape, but developed into a combination of architectural compositions in architectural pedagogy.

Author Biography

Julaihi Wahid, Universiti Malaysia Serawak


Abel, C. 1985. 'Built Sources of Malaysian Identity', Majalah Akitek, 3.85,Malaysia, p32 -40.

Arch Daily (2023) Paul Rudolph: The Latest Architecture and News. https://www.archdaily.com/tag/paul-rudolph retrieved 2023 January.

Banham, R. (1966). “The New Brutalism. Ethic or Aesthetic?”, Reinhold Publishing Corporation – Karl Krämer Verlag, New York –Stuttgart.

Blakeley, S (2022). Activities for Plato’s Theory of Forms. Lecture 301. Principles of Philosophy. Mc Gill Univ., Canada.

Curtis, W. J., (1986). Modern History of Architecture, Phaidon Press.

Elena Imani, Samira Imani (2021) Brutalism: as a preferred style for institutional buildings in modern architecture period, E3S Web of Conferences 231, 04001 (2021) https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20212310400

Fletcher, B. (1987). A History of Architecture, Butterworth Publication, UK. (Paperback).

Hohenadel, K., (2023) What Is Brutalist Architecture?. Overview, History, Popular Buildings, and More in the Spruce.

Jencks, C. 2001 The Story of Post Modernism, John Wiley and Sons, London.

McGuirk, K. (2023). What Is Brutalist Architecture? Key Design Elements to Know. https://www.bhg.com/what-is-brutalist-architecture-8285822.

Meyer, I., ( 2023) .Michelangelo Drawings – Famous Michelangelo Sketches. https://artincontext.org/michelangelo-drawings/.

Niebrzydowski, W. (2018). From “As Found” to Bush-Hammered Concrete – Material and Texture in Brutalist Architecture WMCAUS 2018 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 471 (2019) 072016 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/471/7/072016 1.

Robbins, I. S., (1945) The Impact of World War ll on Housing in New York State. New York History, Vol. 26, No. 3 (July, 1945), pp. 343-355 (13 pages). Published by Cornell University Press.

The Guardian, (retrived 2023). Byker Wall: Newcastle’s Noble Failure of Estate- a History of Cities in 50 buildings.https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/may/21/byker-wall-newcastles-noble-failure-of-an-estate-a-history-of-cities-in-50-buildings-day-41.

Wahid, J. and Harman Shah A.H. (1989) - Coastal Planning and Architecture, Kuching, Sarawak, Research Submitted to USM. .

Wahid et al. (2021) Classification of Malaysian Architecture Revisited Jurnal RUAS Volume 19 No.1 Juni 2021 ISSN 1693-3702 E-ISSN 2477-6033.

Weston, R. (2008). Materials, Form, and Architecture, Laurence King Publishing, China.

Wolf, T. (1981). From Bauhaus to Our House. Mc Millan. USA.




How to Cite

Wahid, J., Abdullah, A., Al Ansi, N., Titisari, E. Y., & Hyder, A. C. (2024). A Discourse on Brutalism Architecture: The Forgotten Architecture Style in Architecture Revolution. RUAS, 21(2), 120–129. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.ruas.2023.021.02.13